Management Tips for Profitable Dairy Farming

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Company Name Management Tips for Profitable Dairy Farming
Contact Person Dr. M. Kishan Kumar
Address Dr. M. Kishan Kumar M. V. Sc., (Dairy) Ph.D. (LPM) Senior Scientist Dairy Experimental Station Livestock Research Institute Sri Venkateswara Veterinary University Rajendranagar
Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India.
Zip / Postal Code 500030
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Description

IMPORTANT  ROUTINE OPERATIONS IN DAIRY FARM:


Feeding of the animals for production and  growth purpose


Cleaning of sheds


Washing of animals


Milking of animals


Identification and isolation of sick animals


Treatment of sick animals


Supply of water for drinking purpose  



SITE  SELECTION:


Important  factors for selection of site are:


1. Nearer by market: It should be  nearer to market so as to minimize transportation charges and lesser loss due to the  spoilage of production, during storage and transportation.


2. Water supply: Water should be available cheaply and in plenty


3. Topography: Topography should be high and level with no abrupt  slopes and soil          

should be fertile.


4. Drainage:  Soil should  be grounds so that effective drainage is possible and farm

premises remain dry.


5. Size and slope of area: farm area should be square shape and should be  nearly

  1-2 hectares.


  

6. Sun exposure and protection: Farm buildings should be located to obtain the  

  maximum sun exposure in the north and minimum sun exposure in south.

  farm site with many trees around is ideal  and to provide the natural shade. Trees

  act as wind breaks.


  
  

7.  Farm site should be nearer to the road and nearer to field pastures.


  

8. Other facilities like: Availability of electricity supply to the  farm.

  

  Availability  of telephone and schools for children of farm centers


SELECTION OF ANIMALS:


For starting dairy farm, the first step is  the selection of dairy animals.


Breed type and characteristic

  

Purchase just calved buffalo with female  calf.


Disease free health status


ANIMAL SHEDS:


Floor should be hard, impervious to water,  non slippery and easy to clean.


For sanitation of shed, ensure good slope  of drainage of dung slurry with minimum

Labours.


To allow proper ventilation, sufficient  arrangement to permit inflow of fresh air.


Asbestos  roof of the shed with slope from covered to open area side.


FEEDING OF BUFFALOES:


Buffaloes are fed forages ad lib.


Concentrates to make up the difference in  nutrient requirement.


Liberal feeding of concentrates during  early lactation is advisable.


Extra allowance of 1-11/2kg concentrate  are provided during 1-11/2 month after Calving.


General thumb rule is concentrates are fed  1kg for every 2kg of buffalo milk production.


In addition, provide 2 kg of maintenance  ration buffaloes in 1st and 2nd lactation will Still be growing. So, provide 20 and 10%  extra allowance in I and II lactation respectively.



Feed  fresh, easily digestible, palatable, quiet appetizing and variety of feed and  fodders.


Feed at  regular intervals during the day


BREEDING:
Breeding of buffaloes of  indigenous breeds should be restricted to the breed without any sort of cross breeding.


Selection of replacement stock should be based  on faster growth  rate, lower age at maturity/ first calving, high dam yield,persitant higher milk  production, higher feed and reproduction efficiency and better  adaptability and disease resistance.


  HEALTH CARE: Isolation and regular veterinary  care of sick animals. Follow the vaccination and immunization programme schedule strictly.


Provide non-slippery floors to avoid injury Keep a careful watch on the health problems in the breed.


Follow  good sanitation and disinfestations programmes


Thoroughly clean the housing, managers and water  troughs which is most essential to keep healthy herbs and  occurrence of diseases.


MASTITIS CONTROL PROGRAMME: 85% of mastitis infection can be prevented by the  following control measures:


Udder  should not contain 15-20%c of residual milk. This id due to the improper / incomplete milking. Avoid udder injuries due to the knuckling  method / improper method of milking.


Calf suckling due to the vices, kicking,  butting, inadequate floor space


Follow  clean habits, clean hands before milking and wash the udder and wipe it before milking.


Provide  proper breeding to the animal especially in  winter season, cracks may be observed due to coarse floor  space and Vaseline may be applied on cracks


Strip  cup test; this should be done for detection of sub clinical mastitis


Symptoms of mastitis: swelling, warmness of  udder, congestion painful,  animal will not allow for milking.


MILKING: Milking the animal quickly with the maximum  yield in the limited time of let down.


Milking process must be completed within  6-8 minutes which is the duration of hormonal effect


  

DO'S AND DON'T'S IN MILKING: Milking time should not be abruptly  changed. Milker should be rotated to avoid  accoustimisation to maximum milking


Wet milking should not be adapted.


Do not commerce the milking until the milk  has let down


Perform the dry and full hand milking.


Milking follow stripping for complete  removal of milk.


Keep the animal busy by offering some  concentrated ration.


Knuckling procedure should be avoided as  it causes teat injury which may lead to mastitis


DAIRY FARM RECORDS:


Dairy farm manager has to take the  decisions feeding, breeding, calving, Culling and long range planning. Hence,  accurate record maintenance is essential Records give information on individual  cows as well as on entire herd for Making day to day decisions


Record gives information on animals and  other day—day operations.

Last Updated: 2014-10-21 04:48:27  
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