|Company Name||Management Tips for Profitable Dairy Farming|
|Contact Person||Dr. M. Kishan Kumar|
|Address||Dr. M. Kishan Kumar
M. V. Sc., (Dairy) Ph.D. (LPM)
Dairy Experimental Station Livestock Research Institute
Sri Venkateswara Veterinary University
Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India.
|Zip / Postal Code||500030|
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IMPORTANT ROUTINE OPERATIONS IN DAIRY FARM:
Feeding of the animals for production and growth purpose
Cleaning of sheds
Washing of animals
Milking of animals
Identification and isolation of sick animals
Treatment of sick animals
Supply of water for drinking purpose
Important factors for selection of site are:
1. Nearer by market: It should be nearer to market so as to minimize transportation charges and lesser loss due to the spoilage of production, during storage and transportation.
2. Water supply: Water should be available cheaply and in plenty
3. Topography: Topography should be high and level with no abrupt slopes and soil
4. Drainage: Soil should be grounds so that effective drainage is possible and farm
5. Size and slope of area: farm area should be square shape and should be nearly
6. Sun exposure and protection: Farm buildings should be located to obtain the
7. Farm site should be nearer to the road and nearer to field pastures.
8. Other facilities like: Availability of electricity supply to the farm.
SELECTION OF ANIMALS:
For starting dairy farm, the first step is the selection of dairy animals.
Breed type and characteristic
Disease free health status
Floor should be hard, impervious to water, non slippery and easy to clean.
For sanitation of shed, ensure good slope of drainage of dung slurry with minimum
To allow proper ventilation, sufficient arrangement to permit inflow of fresh air.
Asbestos roof of the shed with slope from covered to open area side.
FEEDING OF BUFFALOES:
Buffaloes are fed forages ad lib.
Concentrates to make up the difference in nutrient requirement.
Liberal feeding of concentrates during early lactation is advisable.
Extra allowance of 1-11/2kg concentrate are provided during 1-11/2 month after Calving.
General thumb rule is concentrates are fed 1kg for every 2kg of buffalo milk production.
In addition, provide 2 kg of maintenance ration buffaloes in 1st and 2nd lactation will Still be growing. So, provide 20 and 10% extra allowance in I and II lactation respectively.
Feed fresh, easily digestible, palatable, quiet appetizing and variety of feed and fodders.
Feed at regular intervals during the day
Selection of replacement stock should be based on faster growth rate, lower age at maturity/ first calving, high dam yield,persitant higher milk production, higher feed and reproduction efficiency and better adaptability and disease resistance.
HEALTH CARE: Isolation and regular veterinary care of sick animals. Follow the vaccination and immunization programme schedule strictly.
Provide non-slippery floors to avoid injury Keep a careful watch on the health problems in the breed.
Follow good sanitation and disinfestations programmes
Thoroughly clean the housing, managers and water troughs which is most essential to keep healthy herbs and occurrence of diseases.
MASTITIS CONTROL PROGRAMME: 85% of mastitis infection can be prevented by the following control measures:
Udder should not contain 15-20%c of residual milk. This id due to the improper / incomplete milking. Avoid udder injuries due to the knuckling method / improper method of milking.
Calf suckling due to the vices, kicking, butting, inadequate floor space
Follow clean habits, clean hands before milking and wash the udder and wipe it before milking.
Provide proper breeding to the animal especially in winter season, cracks may be observed due to coarse floor space and Vaseline may be applied on cracks
Strip cup test; this should be done for detection of sub clinical mastitis
Symptoms of mastitis: swelling, warmness of udder, congestion painful, animal will not allow for milking.
MILKING: Milking the animal quickly with the maximum yield in the limited time of let down.
Milking process must be completed within 6-8 minutes which is the duration of hormonal effect
DO'S AND DON'T'S IN MILKING: Milking time should not be abruptly changed. Milker should be rotated to avoid accoustimisation to maximum milking
Wet milking should not be adapted.
Do not commerce the milking until the milk has let down
Perform the dry and full hand milking.
Milking follow stripping for complete removal of milk.
Keep the animal busy by offering some concentrated ration.
Knuckling procedure should be avoided as it causes teat injury which may lead to mastitis
DAIRY FARM RECORDS:
Dairy farm manager has to take the decisions feeding, breeding, calving, Culling and long range planning. Hence, accurate record maintenance is essential Records give information on individual cows as well as on entire herd for Making day to day decisions
Record gives information on animals and other day—day operations.
|Last Updated: 2014-10-21 04:48:27|
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