MANAGEMENT OF NEWBORN CALVES
As soon as the calf starts breathing, observe as to whether
the navel cord is still attached. It is to be tied and cut
off and disinfected. Feed the colostrum within 15 minutes
Weaning: If weaning is practiced 4 days after calving, further
ration has to be fed as per the schedule.
Identification: The best method of permanent identification
is by tattooing. Metal ear tags or button with letters and
numbers, neck strap or neck-chain with a number plate make
an easy method of identification.
Dehorning or disbudding: using hot iron, caustic sticks and
electrical dehorning cone carries it out.
In small breeds, heifers are first bred at approximately 15
months of age while of the larger breeds are first bred at
about 18 months. After the heifers have been bred and conception
has taken place, they require somewhat better feeding, particularly
in the last 2 months of pregnancy. They should be vaccinated
against all the infectious and contagious diseases. Control
of internal and external parasites should be continued
MANGEMENT OF MILK COWS
Feeding management: Tropical climate affects
the quality and quantity of forage and these has to be taken
care of, while managing cows for economic returns. Roughage's
especially greens usually fed 4 to 5 times a day. Concentrates
ate fed usually at the time of milking. The required concentrate
mixture should be fed separately. The concentrate mixture
should contain mineral and vitamin supplements.
Breeding management: Dairy cows usually come into heat some
30 to 40 days after calving. It is advisable to breed them
in the second heat.
Dry period: The optimum dry period is between 60 to 100 days
depending up on the production
and general health of the cow.
Care of the expectant mothers: The early stage and later one-
third of the gestation period are very critical in the life
of a female animal. In the stages of pregnancy, disturbances
can cause abortion. During the later one-third of pregnancy,
demands are made on the mother from the rapidly growing foetus
and oncoming lactation.
Parturition care: Knowledge of signs of approaching parturition
is beneficial to the farmer to plan his operation and put the
animal in the calving pen . Though most of ghe4 cows do not
need any help during parturation, it is safer to keep a watch
over the cow before the commencement of labour pain. Watch
the expulsion of placenta. Wash the udder and hind quarters
with lukewarm water containing an antiseptic and dry with a
clean clothe. The colostrums should be given to calf within
15 to 30 minutes of calving.
Milking: Hand milking is the most common practice. Usually
milking is done twice daily, with an
interval of 12 hours.
Housing: Proper housing which is conducive to good health,
comfort and protection from inclement weather , would enable
the animals to utilise their genetic ability and feed for optimum
production . The site selected should be dry, elevated and
well drained with good water supply and provide enough space
for future expansion. The type and number of sheds required
will depend upon the managerial practices.