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ALTERNATE POULTRY FARMING PROVIDES SUSTAINABLE LIVELIHOOD
SECURITY FOR SMALL AND MARGINAL FARMERS

Dr. V. Kumaravel, Dr. K. Senthilkumar, Dr. M. Sakthi Priya and Dr. B. Mohan

KRISHI VIGYAN KENDRA
Veterinary College and Research Institute Campus,
Namakkal – 637002.

In India considerable percentage of farmers are fall into the category of small and marginal farmers or landless labourers. To help them get rid of the encircling poverty, increasing attention on agro based livestock or poultry occupation suited to rural environment.

Alternate Poultry farming with Desi chicken,Turkeys, Quails, Guinea fowl and ducks are gaining monentum among rural landless, small and marginal farmers. The initial investment in terms of housing and operational expenses as concentrate feeds are less and affordable.

Indigenous poultry birds are well adapted to Indian climatic condition of back yard farming and they produce egg and meat at the least possible cost. A single farm family can maintain a flock size of 10 to 200 birds with a minimum care of 2 to 4 hours per day.

The first month care in brooding the chicks is very important and later they are reared in free range system with limited concentrate feeds. Greens and vegetable wastes can be fed adlibitum. Fallen fruits from orchards, waste grains and pulses from flour mills can also be fed to mimise the production cost. Breeder stocks should be fed as per the formulations given below to obtain the maximum egg yield and hatchability.

Alternative Poultry

Desi Chicken

Turkey

Quails

Duck

Varieties

Assel,
Kadakanath,
Nacked neck,
Frizzle and
Cross Bred Desi Birds
Namakkal Chicken – 1,
Giri Raja,
Vana Raja.

Board breasted bronze,
Beltsville small white,
White Holland, Nandhanam

Nandhanam,
Namakkal quail,
Namakkal gold quail for egg purpose

Khaki Campbell for egg laying,

White Pekin for Meat

Incubation Period 

21days

28 days

17 days

28 days

Brooding Period 

7 – 15 days

7 – 15 days

7 – 15 days

15 – 21 days

Space requirement

Chicks : 5 chicks / 1 ft,
Grower : 2 chicks / 1 ft,
Layer : 1 bird / 2 ft.

Chicks : 5 chicks / 1 ft,
Grower : 2 chicks / 1 ft,
Layer : 1 bird / 2 ft.

Chicks : 5 chicks / 1 ft,
after 2 weeks may shit to cage system

Chicks : 5 chicks / 1 ft,
Grower : 2 chicks / 1 ft,
Layer : 1 bird / 2 ft.

Alternative Poultry

Desi Chicken

Turkey

Quails

Duck

Vaccination Schedule

Ranikhet Disease vaccine : 
7th day, 5th Week – lasota – eye drop.
9th Week RDVK after that once in 3 month.
Fowl pox vaccine :
8 – 16 Weeks of age

Ranikhet Disease vaccine : 
7th day, 5th Week – lasota – eye drop.
9th Week RDVK after that once in 3 month.
Fowl pox vaccine :
8 – 16 Weeks of age

Vaccination not required

Duck plague vaccine :
8– 12 weeks

Production Details

Body weight 1.5 – 1.7 Kg  at 4 – 5 Months

Body weight 4.00 – 5.00 kg at 4 -5 Months

200 g – 225 g at 35 to 45 days

Egg laying starts after 4-5 months and laying 250 to 300 eggs

Feed Ingredients and Formulation

 

Maize : 30 %, Sorgum : 5 %, Broken Rice : 15 %, Fish Meal : 6 – 8 %, Soya bean meal : 5 %, Sunflower cake : 5 %, Rice bran : 9 – 20 %, Mineral Mixture : 2.5%, Vitamin Mixture : 250g.  For laying birds 6 kg shell grit should be added.

Alternate Poultry farming provides livelihood security to the family in addition to securing the availability of food. Unemployed youth and women can also earn an income through poultry farming.